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A practical guide to critical parameters in acute care testing such as pO2, lactate and troponin

Critical parameters in acute care testing

Critical blood gas parameters available in our ABL analyzers. A detailed description of the critical parameters is also available for download.

Blood gases

pH - Potential of hydrogen

The degree of acidity or alkalinity of any liquid (including blood) is a function of its hydrogen ion concentration [H+], and pH is simply a way of expressing hydrogen ion activity. The relationship between pH and hydrogen ion concentration is described thus [1]:

pH = -log aH+
where aH+ is hydrogen ion activity.

Low pH is associated with acidosis and high pH with alkalosis.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about pH and other parameters.

The pH parameter is available in these products:

 

pCO2 – Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an acidic gas; the amount of CO2 in blood is largely controlled by the rate and depth of breathing or ventilation. pCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 in blood. It is a measure of the pressure exerted by that small portion (~5 %) of total CO2 that remains in the gaseous state, dissolved in the blood plasma [2]. pCO2 is the respiratory component of acid-base balance and reflects the adequacy of pulmonary ventilation. The severity of ventilator failure as well as the chronicity can be judged by the accompanying changes in acid-base status.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about pCO2 and other parameters.

The pCO2 parameter is available in these products:

 

pO2 – Partial pressure of oxygen

The amount of oxygen in blood is controlled by many variables, e.g. ventilation/perfusion. pO2 is the partial pressure of oxygen in a gas phase in equilibrium with the blood. pO2 only reflects a small fraction (1 – 2 %) of total oxygen in blood that is dissolved in blood plasma [3]. The remaining 98 – 99 % of oxygen present in blood is bound to the hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. pO2 primarily reflects the oxygen uptake in the lungs.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about pO2 and other parameters.

The pO2 parameter is available in these products:

 

Electrolytes

cNa+ – Sodium

Sodium (Na+) is the dominant cation in the extracellular fluid, where it has a 14-fold higher concentration (∼140 mmol/L) than in the intracellular fluid (∼10 mmol/L). Na+ is a major contributor of the osmolality of the extracellular fluid and its main function is largely in controlling and regulating water balance, and maintaining blood pressure. Na+ is also important for transmitting nerve impulses and activating muscle concretion.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cNa+ and other parameters.

The cNa+ parameter is available in these products:

 

cK+ – Potassium

Potassium (K+) is the major cation in the intracellular fluid, where it has a 25 - 37-fold higher concentration (∼150 mmol/L in tissue cells, ∼105 mmol/L in erythrocytes) than in the extracellular fluid (∼4 mmol/L) [7, 8]. K+ has several vital functions in the body, e.g. regulation of neuromuscular excitability, regulation of heart rhythm, regulation of intracellular and extracellular volume and acid-base status.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cK+ and other parameters.

The cK+ parameter is available in these products:

 

cCa2+ – Calsium

The calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the most prevalent cations in the body, where approximately 1 % is present in the extracellular fluid of blood. Ca2+ plays a vital role for bone mineralization and many cellular processes, e.g. contractility of the heart and the skeletal musculature, neuromuscular transmission, hormone secretion and action in various enzymatic reactions such as, e.g. blood coagulation.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cCa2+ and other parameters.

The cCa2+ parameter is available in these products:

 

cCl- – Chloride

Chloride (Cl-) is the major anion in the extracellular fluid and one of the most important anions in blood. The main function of Cl- is to maintain osmotic pressure, fluid balance, muscular activity, ionic neutrality in plasma, and help elucidate the cause of acid-base disturbances.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cCl- and other parameters.

The cCl- parameter is available in these products:

 

Metabolites

cGlu – Glucose

Glucose, the most abundant carbohydrate in human metabolism, serves as the major intracellular energy source (see lactate). Glucose is derived principally from dietary carbohydrate, but it is also produced – primarily in the liver and kidneys – via the anabolic process of gluconeogenesis, and from the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis). This endogenously produced glucose helps keep blood glucose concentration within normal limits, when dietary-derived glucose is not available, e.g. between meals or during periods of starvation.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cGlu and other parameters.

The cGlu parameter is available in these products:

 

cLac – Lactate

Lactate, the anion that results from dissociation of lactic acid, is an intracellular metabolite of glucose. It is produced by skeletal muscle cells, red blood cells (erythrocytes), the brain, and other tissues during anaerobic energy production (glycolysis). Lactate is formed in the intracellular fluid from pyruvate; the reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [4].

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cLac and other parameters.

The cLac parameter is available in these products:

 

cCrea – Creatinine

Creatinine is an endogenous waste product of muscle metabolism, derived from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production within muscle cells. Creatinine is removed from the body in urine and its concentration in blood reflects glomerular filtration and thereby kidney function.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about cCrea and other parameters.

The cCrea parameter is available in these products:

 

cUrea – Urea

Urea (molecular formula CO(NH2)2) is the principal nitrogenous waste product of protein catabolism, which is eliminated from the body in urine. It is the most abundant organic component of urine.
Urea is transported in blood from the liver to the kidneys, where it is filtered from the blood and excreted in the urine. Renal failure is associated with the reduced excretion of urea in urine, and a consequent rise in blood (plasma/serum) urea concentration.

The cUrea parameter is available in this product:

 

Oximetry

ctHb – Total hemoglobin

The concentration of total hemoglobin (ctHb) in blood includes oxyhemoglobin (cO2Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (cHHb), as well as the dysfunctional hemoglobin species that are incapable of binding oxygen:

carboxyhemoglobin (cCOHb) (see COHb), methemoglobin (cMetHb) (see MetHb) and sulfhemoglobin (cSulfHb).

Thus:

ctHb = cO2Hb + cHHb + cCOHb + cMetHb + cSulfHb

The rare sulfHb is not included in the reported c tHb in most oximeters.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about ctHb and other parameters.

The ctHb parameter is available in these products:

 

MetHb – Methemoglobin

FMetHb is the fraction of total hemoglobin (ctHb) that is present as methemoglobin (MetHb). By convention the fraction is expressed as a percentage (%) [1].

In most medical text boxes MetHb(a) is referred to as simply methemoglobin (MetHb).

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about MetHb and other parameters.

The MetHb parameter is available in these products:

 

COHb – carboxyhemoglobin

FMetHb is the fraction of total hemoglobin (ctHb) that is present as methemoglobin (MetHb). By convention the fraction is expressed as a percentage (%) [1].

In the range of 0 – 60 % COHb in arterial (COHb(a)) and venous blood (COHb(v)) is similar, i.e. either venous or arterial blood may be analyzed [5]. In most medical texts FCOHb(a) is referred to as simply COHb.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about COHb and other parameters.

The COHb parameter is available in these products:

 

sO2 – Oxygen saturation

Oxygen saturation (sO2) is the ratio of oxyhemoglobin concentration to concentration of functional hemoglobin (i.e. oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) capable of carrying oxygen [1].

The sO2 reflects utilization of the currently available oxygen transport capacity.

In arterial blood 98 – 99 % of oxygen is transported in erythrocytes bound to hemoglobin. The remaining 1–2 % of the oxygen transported in blood is dissolved in the blood plasma – this is the portion reported as partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) [6].

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about sO2 and other parameters.

The sO2 parameter is available in these products:

 

FO2Hb – Fraction of oxyhemoglobin

Fraction of oxyhemoglobin in total hemoglobin in blood.

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about FO2Hb and other parameters.

The FO2Hb parameter is available in these products:

 

FHHb – Fraction of deoxyhemoglobin

Fraction of deoxyhemoglobin in total hemoglobin in blood.

The FHHb parameter is available in these products:

 

FHbF – Fraction of fetal hemoglobin

Fraction of fetal hemoglobin in total hemoglobin in blood.

The FHbF parameter is available in these products:

 

ctBil – Bilirubin

Bilirubin is the yellow breakdown product of the degradation of the heme group of hemoglobin. It is transported in blood from its site of production – the reticuloendothelial system – to the liver, where it is biotransformed before excretion in bile. Jaundice, the pathological yellow discoloration of skin, is due to abnormal accumulation of bilirubin in the tissues, and is always associated with elevated blood concentration of bilirubin (hyperbilirubinemia).

Download the Acute Care Testing handbook and learn more about ctBil and other parameters.

The ctBil parameter is available in these products:

 

Hematocrit

Hct – Hematocrit

Hematocrit, the ratio between the volume of erythrocytes and the volume of whole blood.

The Hct parameter is available in these products:


References

  1. CLSI. Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; Approved Guidelines. CLSI document CA46-A2, 29, 8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.
  2. Higgins C. Parameters that reflect the carbon dioxide content of blood. www.acutecaretesting.org Oct 2008.
  3. Wettstein R, Wilkins R. Interpretation of blood gases. In: Clinical assessment in respiratory care, 6th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2010.
  4. Robergs RA, Ghiasvand F, Parker D. Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004; 287: R502-16.
  5. Lopez DM, Weingarten-Arams JS, Singer LP, Conway EE Jr. Relationship between arterial, mixed venous and internal jugular carboxyhemoglobin concentrations at low, medium and high concentrations in a piglet model of carbon monoxide toxicity. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1998-2001.
  6. Higgins C. Why measure blood gases? A three-part introduction for the novice. Part 1. www.acutecaretesting.org Jan 2012.
  7. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. 5th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2012. Engquist A. Fluids/Electrolytes/Nutrition. 1st ed. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1985.

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Effective April 18, 2018

This Online Privacy Notice (“Privacy Policy”) explains how we handle the Personal Data provided to us on websites, mobile sites, mobile applications, and other digital services and products controlled by Radiometer Medical ApS, Åkandevej 21, 2700 Brønshøj, Denmark, that link to this Privacy Policy (collectively, “Radiometer Sites”).  Radiometer is the data controller for the processing of Personal Data under applicable law.

This Privacy Notice does not apply to third-party websites to which Radiometer Sites may link.

Types of Information We Collect Online

The types of Personal Data that we may collect while you use the Radiometer Sites are described in this section and include both information that you provide to us and information that we collect automatically when you use the Radiometer Sites.
For purposes of this Privacy Policy, “Personal Data” means information that identifies you or that could reasonably be used to identify you. Examples of Personal Data include name, address, telephone number, and email address.

Information You Provide

You do not have to register for a service or program to receive much of the information available through Radiometer Sites. However, some of our content is available only to registered or identified users and will require you to set up a profile or provide specific information about yourself in order to provide you the service.

Personal Data You Provide When Visiting Radiometer Sites

Radiometer collects Personal Data that you provide on Radiometer Sites, for example, when purchasing a product, to receive marketing products and information, contact Radiometer customer service, or respond to Radiometer questionnaires or surveys. This could include:

  • Contact Information such as your name, address, phone number, or email address
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  • Content you may provide (for example, when you complete our Online Contact Form or submit other information).

 

Personal Data You Share During Other Interactions with Radiometer

You may contact Radiometer to ask questions, discuss your concerns, or report issues regarding our products. If you communicate with or request information from Radiometer, you may be prompted to provide your contact information as well as any Personal Data that is relevant to your request.

Information That May Be Collected Automatically

When you use the Radiometer Sites, we also may collect certain usage and device information automatically as described below.

IP Address

We may record the Internet Protocol (“IP”) address of your computer or other electronic device when you visit the Radiometer Sites. An IP address identifies the electronic device you use to access the Sites, which allows us to maintain communication with your computer as you move about Radiometer Sites and to customize content.

Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We also collect information about your use of Radiometer Sites through tracking technologies such as cookies and web beacons. A “cookie” is a unique numeric code that is transferred to your computer to track your interests and preferences and to recognize you as a return visitor. A “Web beacon” is a transparent graphic image placed on a Web site, e-mail or advertisement that enables the monitoring of things such as user activity and site traffic. These technologies help remember your preferences and allow us to bring you the content and features that are likely to be of greatest interest to you on the basis of “clickstream” data that shows your previous activities on Radiometer Sites.

We utilize Google Display Advertising (such as Retargeting with Google Analytics, Google Display Network Impression Reporting, DoubleClick Campaign Manager integration, and Google Analytics Demographics and Interest Reporting) to (1) show you our ads on other websites based on your prior visits to Radiometer Sites, and (2) better understand our ad impressions and use of ad services. In connection with the Google Analytics Demographics and Interest Reporting service, we may use data from Google's interest-based advertising or third-party audience data (such as age, gender and interests) with Google Analytics to understand and improve our marketing campaigns and Site content. 

Some of our online advertising takes place through Google Display Advertising. As part of this program, we use Google Analytics features such as Retargeting. In connection with that feature and others offered by ad networks, we and the operators of ad networks, including Google, may use third-party cookies (such as the DoubleClick cookie) – and in some cases first-party cookies (such as the Google Analytics cookie) – to inform, optimize and serve ads across the Internet, based on a user's past visits to Radiometer Sites. We also may show you ads from some of our affiliated companies when you visit Radiometer Sites. 

You can opt out of Google Ads by visiting http://www.google.com/ads/preferences. If you do not want your data used by Google Analytics, you can install the Google Analytics opt-out browser add-on at the Google Analytics opt-out page.

This Radiometer Site is not designed to respond to "do not track" signals received from browsers.

To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies, including how to disable them, please visit http://www.allaboutcookies.org/. Please note that some cookies are essential to the functioning of our Sites and deleting or disabling them will reduce the site’s functionality.

Mobile Tracking

Some Radiometer Sites are available either as mobile applications or mobile sites that you can use on your mobile device. If you use a mobile device to access and use the Radiometer Sites, we may collect the following mobile-specific information in addition to the other information described above: device or advertising ID, device type, hardware type, media access control (“MAC”) address, international mobile equipment identity (“IMEI”), the version of your mobile operating system, the platform used to access or download the Radiometer Site (e.g., Apple, Google, Amazon, Windows), location information and usage information about your device and your use of the Radiometer Sites.

Information Collected from Other Sources

We may combine information about you from a visit to one Radiometer Site with information about you from visits to other Radiometer Sites. We may also combine information about you that is collected through the Radiometer Sites with information that we have collected offline, as well as with information provided to us by third parties.

How We Use Your Information

We use your Personal Data to provide you the product and services you request, communicate with you, improve your experience on the Radiometer Sites, generally improve our products and services and for other internal business purposes. These uses may also include the recording, organization, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction of Personal Data. The Personal Data we collect about you may be stored for five years following the most recent interaction we have had with you, after which point it will be archived only for so long as reasonably necessary for the purposes set out above, in accordance with applicable laws.

Providing Product and Services You Request

If you choose to purchase a product or receive our services, we use the Personal Data that you provide through Radiometer Sites to manage your orders and invoices, to process payments, to respond to your questions, provide you the services you request and offer an optimal customer experience.

Marketing

You may also receive marketing information from Radiometer and related affiliates, such as offers regarding Radiometer related products or services, invitations to participate in surveys about our products, or notifications about special promotions. In such cases, we will use your contact and other Personal Data to send you marketing information.

Customized User Experiences

The Personal Data that you provide may be used to create customized offers, information, or services tailored to your interests and preferences. Also, we may use your IP address and the data that we obtain automatically through the use of cookies or similar tracking technologies to make our Radiometer Sites easier to use and navigate as well as to personalize the content provided on Radiometer Sites by anticipating the information and services that may be of interest to you.

Business and Product Improvement

In order to discover new facts that could help Radiometer better understand customer needs and help improve, develop, and evaluate product, services, materials, and programs. Radiometer analyzes the information that you have provided. For these purposes Radiometer does not use information that can directly identify you.

Site Analytics and Improvement

We may use the information that you provide and the information we collect automatically about your use of the Radiometer Sites to monitor user traffic patterns and preferences for site improvement, analytics and optimization.

Legal Basis for Processing

Under European data protection laws, Radiometer must have a legal basis to process your Personal Data. The legal basis that applies in a particular instance will depend on for which of the specific purposes described above Radiometer is processing your Personal Data:

  • In certain cases, Radiometer may ask for your consent to collect and process your Personal Data. Should you choose to provide your consent, you may later withdraw your consent by contacting us as described in the “Your Privacy Choices” section.  Please note that the withdrawal of consent will not affect processing which has already occurred.
  • In other instances, the processing of your Personal Data may be necessary in order to comply with an applicable law or regulation or for the performance of a contract to which you are subject. You may not be able to opt-out of this processing, or your choice to opt-out may impact our ability to perform a contractual obligation otherwise owed to you.
  • In still other instances, Radiometer may process your Personal Data based on Radiometer’s legitimate interests in communicating with you about our products and services, and about scientific research and educational opportunities.  You have the right to opt-out of all such processing of your Personal Data. You may do so by contacting us as described in the “Your Privacy Choices” section.  

 

Information We Share

We only share your Personal Data with third parties as described below. We do not sell or rent Personal Data to third parties for their own marketing purposes.

Third-Party Advertising and Online Behavioral Advertising

You may be provided with online advertisements of Radiometer products and services on third-party websites and mobile services that are tailored to you, for example, on the basis of information that you provide to Radiometer or a third-party website you are visiting, or of your browsing activity, purchases, or interests. These types of tailored online advertisements may come through several sources, such as the following:

  • We may share with our advertising service providers your non-identifying information that we have obtained from cookies and other tracking technologies on our Radiometer eb sites.
  • Some Radiometer Web sites participate in online behavioral advertising (this is also sometimes called re-target advertising or interest-based advertising). You can identify these sites by the “Advertising Choices” link in the footer. Our advertising network partners may place and use cookies on Radiometer Web sites and on other third-party Web sites to collect information about your activities in order to provide you with online advertisements that are based on your interests. When a Radiometer online behavioral advertisement is delivered to you, you will see an “Ad Choices” icon. Clicking on the icon or link will take you to a Web site where you can manage or opt out of the use of data about your browsing history that is used for the delivery of online behavioral advertisements. If you opt out, you may still see advertisements online, including advertisements from Radiometer that are based on other information (e.g., based on the content of the page being viewed rather than your prior clickstream activity). In some cases, data may still be collected about your browsing activity by these third-party advertisers, but they will not use this data to deliver advertisements that are based on your past online browsing behavior. You can also opt out now by clicking here.
  • Some Web browsers may transmit “do-not-track” signals to Web sites with which the browser communicates. As of April 18, 2018 of this Privacy Notice, an industry standard has not yet been established on how to respond to these signals. Therefore, Radiometer does not currently respond to these signals. As discussed above, you can opt-out from advertisers that use your browsing history to deliver online behavioral advertisements by visiting adchoices.

 

Affiliates, Vendors and Suppliers

We have relationships with suppliers and affiliated companies, who help us operate our business and for whom it may be necessary to have access to your Personal Data in the course of providing services to Radiometer. We will not authorize these parties to use your Personal Data for any purpose that is not related to Radiometer and its related affiliates business operation, and we do not share Personal Data from countries that require consent, unless appropriate consent has been obtained in advance to sharing with related affiliates. We require them to handle your Personal Data collected in accordance with this Privacy Notice.

Co-branded Sites

We may partner with other companies to provide you with content or services on a joint or “co-branded” basis. At a cobranded site, you will see both the Radiometer logo and the logo of the co-branding partner displayed on your screen. You should read the individual privacy policies of our co-branding partners, as they may differ in some respects from ours. Reading these policies will help you to make an informed decision about whether to provide your information to a given site.

Product Reports

If you contact Radiometer regarding your experience in using one of our products, we may use the information that you provide in submitting reports to the designated government regulatory authority, as required of us by law.

Legal Rights and Obligations

In certain limited circumstances, Radiometer may need to disclose your Personal Data in order to comply with a legal obligation or demand, such as to comply with reporting obligations to our governing regulatory authorities regarding the safety of our products, or in connection with the sale or transfer of one of our product lines or divisions, which includes the services provided through one or more of the Radiometer Sites. In such instances, we will take measures to protect your Personal Data to the extent possible. We also reserve the right to use Personal Data to investigate and prosecute users who violate our rules or who engage in behavior that is illegal or harmful to others or to others’ property.

Change in Organization

In the event Radiometer decides to reorganize or divest our business through sale, merger, or acquisition, Radiometer may share Personal Data about you with actual or prospective purchasers.  We will require any actual or prospective purchasers to treat this Personal Data in a manner consistent with this notice.

Children Privacy

Radiometer does not knowingly collect or use any Personal Data directly from children on Radiometer Sites (Radiometer defines as “children” as minors younger than 18). We do not knowingly allow children to order our products, to communicate with us, or to use any of our online services. If you are a parent and become aware that your child has provided us with information, please contact us using one of the methods specified below, and we will work with you to address this issue.

Your Privacy Choices

You have the right to see and get a copy of Personal Data about you that we maintain as well as to ask us to make corrections to inaccurate or incomplete Personal Data about you.  

You have the right to receive data you have provided to us in a machine-readable format and to transmit that data to another controller. 
You may also request the erasure of your Personal Data or the restriction of its processing, or object to the processing of Personal Data about you. 
To seek access to Personal Data about you, to file a concern, complaint, or request for correction, or to opt-out of particular programs, please:

  • contact our Legal & Compliance team by clicking on the “Contact Us” link on the Radiometer Site you are using (please add “Privacy” in the headline)
  • contact us by using the Radiometer contact information on the Radiometer mobile application you are using
  • contact us by emailing us at privacy@radiometer.dk.

 

You may also send a letter to the following address:
Radiometer Medical ApS Attn: Legal & Compliance (Privacy)
Åkandevej 21
2700 Brønshøj
Denmark

For more information about your privacy rights, or if you are not able to resolve a problem directly with us and wish to make a compliant, contact your local data protection authority, if applicable.

In all communications to Radiometer, please include your email address, the website address, mobile application, and/or the specific Radiometer product to which you provided Personal Data (e.g., www.radiometer.com), and a detailed explanation of your request. If you would like to delete, amend, or correct your Personal Data and are contacting us by email, please put “Deletion Request” or “Amendment/Correction Request” in the subject line of the email. We will respond to all reasonable requests in a timely manner and may need to further confirm your identity in order to process certain requests.

Data Security

Radiometer maintains reasonable technical, administrative and physical controls to secure any Personal Data collected through the Radiometer Sites. However, there is always some risk that an unauthorized third party could intercept an Internet transmission, or that someone will find a way to thwart our security systems. We urge you to exercise caution when transmitting Personal Data over the Internet, especially your financial-related information. Radiometer cannot guarantee that unauthorized third parties will not gain access to your Personal Data; therefore, when submitting Personal Data to Radiometer Sites, you must weigh both the benefits and the risks.

Third Party Sites and Social Media Plug-ins

This Privacy Notice does not apply to third-party websites to which Radiometer Sites may link. Radiometer Sites may use social media plug-ins (e.g., the Facebook “Like” button, “Share to Twitter” button) to enable you to easily share information with others. When you visit Radiometer Sites, the operator of the social plug-in can place a cookie on your computer or other electronic device that enables that operator to recognize individuals who have previously visited our Site. If you are logged into the social media website (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) while browsing on our Radiometer Site, the social media plug-in allows that social media website to receive information that you have visited our Radiometer Site. The social media plug-in also allows the social media website to share information about your activities on our Radiometer Site with other users of their social media website. These sharing settings are managed by the social media website and governed by its privacy policy.

Accessing Our Sites Globally

This site is owned and operated by Radiometer in Denmark, but the information you provide will be accessible to our affiliates, vendors, and suppliers in other countries in accordance with this policy. Furthermore, if you are visiting this site from a country other than Denmark, your communication with us will necessarily result in the transfer of information across international borders. The level of legal protection for Personal Data is not the same in all countries; however, we will take the security measures described in this Privacy Notice in an effort to keep your information secure. By using this site, you understand that your Personal Data may be stored and processed in the United States and in any country to which we may transfer your information in the course of our business operations.

Notice to California Residents 

Subject to certain limits under California Civil Code § 1798.83, California residents may ask us to provide them with (i) a list of certain categories of Personal Data that we have disclosed to third parties for their direct marketing purposes during the immediately preceding calendar year, and (ii) the identity of those third parties. To make this request, California residents may contact us at privacy@radiometer.dk.

Changes to Our Privacy Policy

We will only use Personal Data in the manner described in this Privacy Policy in effect when the information was collected from you or as authorized by you. However, and subject to any applicable consent requirements, we reserve the right to change the terms of this Privacy Policy at any time. Any changes to this Privacy Policy will be reflected on this page with a new effective date. Radiometer encourages you to review this Privacy Policy regularly for any changes. Any Personal Data collected upon your continued use of Radiometer Sites will be handled in accordance with the currently-posted Privacy Policy.

Privacy and Security

Radiometer Medical ApS (“Radiometer”), along with its affiliates and subsidiaries respect your privacy, value our relationship, and are committed to safeguarding your privacy. We understand the importance of privacy to our customers and visitors to the Radiometer websites. Our use of Personal Data is governed by our Privacy Policy and by accessing and using the Radiometer websites, you agree to be bound by that Privacy Policy.

You recognize and agree that when submitting your personally identifiable information to Radiometer websites, while Radiometer has safeguards in place to prevent unauthorized access or interception, there is no absolute guarantee of security. IN THE UNLIKELY EVENT OF AN INTERCEPTION OR UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS DESPITE OUR EFFORTS, RADIOMETER SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SUCH INTERCEPTIONS OR UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS, OR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS) SUFFERED BY A CUSTOMER OR USER, EVEN IF RADIOMETER HAS PREVIOUSLY BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, RADIOMETER DOES NOT WARRANT, EITHER EXPRESSLY OR IMPLIED, THAT THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY ANY CUSTOMER SHALL BE FREE FROM INTERCEPTION OR UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS, AND DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. EACH CUSTOMER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTAINING THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF HIS OR HER OWN PASSWORD.

 

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